Goldenseal

Updated | 2018-10-29


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Goldenseal


Overview

Botanical Name: Hydrastis canadensis


Order: Ranunculales


Family: Ranunculaceae


Goldenseal is a rare medicinal plant often added to Echinacea to treat the boost the immune system.



Evidence

Strong:

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Good:

-

Promising:

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Conflicting (Unclear):

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Limited Evidence:

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No Evidence:

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No Clinical Research:

All other conditions.


Side Effects
Side effects may include:
  • Diarrhea
  • Mouth Sores
  • Nausea
  • Numbness, Prickling, or Tingling in the Arms and Legs
  • Sedation
  • Skin Inflammation
  • Stomach Cramping and Pain
  • Vomiting
Precautions and Adverse Events:
  • Avoid or contact a licensed healthcare practitioner, if you have a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, and heart or blood vessel disease especially hypertension, heart failure, or irregular heartbeats.
  • Adverse events relating to goldenseal may include: dangerous heart rhythms, decrease white blood cell counts, paralysis, respiratory depression, seizures, and slow pulse.
  • Goldenseal taken over extended periods may cause digestive disorders, mucous membrane irritation, constipation, excitatory states, hallucinations, and occasional deliria.
  • Goldenseal can cause jaundice and hemolytic anemia in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
  • A case of severe hypernatremia and hyperosmolality in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • There was a case of photosensitivity of a goldenseal / ginseng / bee pollen combination.
[1-5]


Pregnant or Nursing

There is not enough research on the use of supplements containing goldenseal during pregnancy and breast-feeding, so consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use or avoid use. However, women with a history of miscarriages should NOT take goldenseal. [1-5]



Interactions

Major

  • Drugs changed by Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the liver
[6-15]

Moderate

-

Potential

  • Alcohol
  • Anti-Hypertensives
  • B Vitamins
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Beta-Blockers
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Warfarin
  • Goldenseal may NOT interact with Digoxin and Indinavir
[6-15]


Dosage

Goldenseal is not a "drug", the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label, or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use. However, large doses of goldenseal may cause nervousness, depression, exaggerated reflexes, irritation of the mouth, stomach and mucous membranes, and even respiratory paralysis, seizures, heart and blood vessel collapse, or death. [16]



Compounds
Goldenseal compounds


References

1. Bhowmick SK, Hundley OT, Rettig KR. Severe hypernatremia and hyperosmolality exacerbated by an herbal preparation in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007 Nov;46(9):831-4. 2. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 3. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 4. Palanisamy A, Haller C, Olson KR. Photosensitivity reaction in a woman using an herbal supplement containing ginseng, goldenseal, and bee pollen. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003;41(6):865-7. 5. Tsai HH, Lin HW, Simon Pickard A, Tsai HY, Mahady GB. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review. Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;66(11):1056-78. 6. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 7. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 8. Gurley BJ, Fifer EK, Gardner Z. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (part 2): drug interactions involving popular botanical dietary supplements and their clinical relevance. Planta Med. 2012 Sep;78(13):1490-514. 9. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, Williams DK, Gentry WB, Khan IA, Shah A. In vivo effects of goldenseal, kava kava, black cohosh, and valerian on human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4/5 phenotypes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 May;77(5):415-26. 10. Gurley BJ, Swain A, Barone GW, Williams DK, Breen P, Yates CR, Stuart LB, Hubbard MA, Tong Y, Cheboyina S. Effect of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum) supplementation on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Feb;35(2):240-5. 11. Gurley BJ, Swain A, Hubbard MA, Hartsfield F, Thaden J, Williams DK, Gentry WB, Tong Y. Supplementation with goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), but not kava kava (Piper methysticum), inhibits human CYP3A activity in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jan;83(1):61-9. 12. Gurley BJ, Swain A, Hubbard MA, Williams DK, Barone G, Hartsfield F, Tong Y, Carrier DJ, Cheboyina S, Battu SK. Clinical assessment of CYP2D6-mediated herb-drug interactions in humans: effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, goldenseal, kava kava, St. John's wort, and Echinacea. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Jul;52(7):755-63. 13. Hermann R, von Richter O. Clinical evidence of herbal drugs as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Planta Med. 2012 Sep;78(13):1458-77. 14. Sandhu RS, Prescilla RP, Simonelli TM, Edwards DJ. Influence of goldenseal root on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Nov;43(11):1283-8. 15. Tsai HH, Lin HW, Simon Pickard A, Tsai HY, Mahady GB. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review. Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;66(11):1056-78. 16. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000.

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