Overview of Aloe
Scientific Name: Aloe vera / Aloe barbadensis
Do not confuse with krantz aloe (Aloe arborescens), Zimbabwe aloe (Aloe excelsa), or cape aloe (Aloe ferox). According to the State of California, non-decolorized Aloe vera whole leaf extracts cause cancer [Proposition 65 Warning]. Non-decolorized means that extracts from the plant's leaves have not been filtered to remove cancer-causing chemicals found naturally in aloe. Look for decolorized aloe whole leaf extracts, which have been filtered to remove the cancer-causing chemicals.
- Moisturizer for Dry Skin, a hand sanitizer containing aloe / copper biocide, and gloves with aloe gel appear to be effective [1-3]
- Oral Lichen Planus, a gel containing aloe [4-7]
Conflicting (Unclear):insufficient information
- Alveolar Osteitis (Dry Socket), a patch containing aloe to reduce inflammation after tooth extraction may be effective 
- Alzheimer’s Disease 
- Antioxidant, oral ingestion of aloe may enhance the bioavailability of Vitamins C, B12, and E [10-11]
- Anti-Tumor, aloe in combination with melatonin 
- Burning Mouth Syndrome, tongue protector containing aloe 
- Constipation (Laxative), a capsule containing aloe / celandine / psyllium 
- Diaper Induced Dermatitis, a gel containing aloe in combination with an ointment containing calendula 
- Dry Mouth, a mouth rinse containing aloe 
- Frostbite 
- Gingivitis and Plaque, toothpastes and mouthwashes containing aloe may be slightly effective [18-21]
- Hand Sanitizer, a sanitizer containing aloe / copper biocide 
- HIV 
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) 
- Liver Fibrosis (Hepatic Fibrosis) 
- Mustard Gas Exposure, a cream containing aloe / olive oil 
- Nasal Irritation from Ozone, an essential oil containing aloe / coconut / orange / peppermint / Vitamin E 
- Oily Skin, a cream containing aloe / 4% hydroquinone / 10% L-ascorbic acid / witch hazel / vitamin E / zinc oxide / octinoxate 
- Oral Submucous Fibrosis, a gel containing aloe 
- Oral Ulcers, a patch containing aloe 
- Pre-Diabetes [31-32]
- Pressure Ulcers (Bedsores), a hydrogel dressing containing aloe 
- Psoriasis, creams containing aloe [34-36]
- Scabies, a gel containing aloe 
- Second-Degree Burns, gels containing aloe [38-39]
- Skin Damage from Breast Radiotherapy, topical application of aloe may be slightly effective; however, an aloe / ginkgo combination may be more effective [40-45]
- Sunburn and Suntan, creams containing aloe [46-47]
- Type 2 Diabetes
- Vulva Lichen Planus, a gel containing aloe 
- Weight Loss 
- Wound Healing, gels containing aloe and it appears that aloe gel may delay wound healing after C-section and laparotomy [51-53]
- Canker Sores, a gel containing aloe / silicon dioxide / allantoin 
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) 
- Skin Damage from Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy 
No Clinical Research:All other conditions.
- Delayed Healing of Wounds (from topical application of aloe)
- Gastrointestinal Upset
- Intestinal Spasms
- Rashes (from topical application of aloe)
- Avoid or contact a licensed healthcare practitioner, if you have intestinal/bowel obstruction, fecal impaction, inflammatory bowel diseases (such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis), acute abdomen, appendicitis, abdomen pains of unknown reason, liver, kidney, heart, and other gastrointestinal problems, allergies to plants in the order Asparagales (asparagus, onions, etc.).
- You should not ingest aloe latex, and use caution if you take products containing the outer part of the aloe leaf, since these products may contain some aloe latex. The FDA in 2002 required that all aloe laxative products should be removed from stores or reformulated because manufacturers did not provide the necessary safety information.
- Consumption of large doses and long-term use of aloe may cause body salt imbalances, severe stomach discomfort, dehydration, reddish urine, bloody diarrhea, kidney damage or failure, edema, accelerated bone deterioration, blood build-up in the pelvis, irregular heartbeat, weak muscles, severe diarrhea (aloe is a strong laxative), albuminuria, melanosis coli (usually a reversible condition after discontinued use of aloe), severe weight loss.
- Consumption of aloe has caused a few cases of liver inflammation (hepatitis); these incidences may have been due to long-term use of aloe and hypersensitive allergic responses to aloe.
- Use caution and monitor your blood sugar levels, if you are taking aloe and have diabetes. If you have low blood sugar symptoms, contact a licensed healthcare practitioner.
- Children younger than 12 years of age should not ingest aloe because of its strong laxative properties or, in other cases, it may instead cause constipation.
- There are reports of serious adverse events (and possibly death) from aloe injections, aloe overdose, and ingestion of aloe latex.
- After applying aloe to areas of skin treated by dermabrasion and chemical peel, patients had severe dermatitis.
- Long-term use of topical and oral products containing aloe may cause minor to severe allergic skin reactions.
- Especially avoid aloe latex if you have hemorrhoids; it may worsen the condition.
- Aloe can cause contact dermatitis.
Do not use aloe if you are or may be pregnant. There are concerns that aloe can cause miscarriage, premature births, or congenital malformations. Though, there is not enough research on the use of supplements containing aloe during pregnancy and breast-feeding, you should consult a licensed healthcare practitioner. [57-71]
- Avoid aloe use at least 2 weeks before surgery; it may interact with anesthetics
- Digoxin; aloe appears to interact with digoxin and can cause hypokalemia
- Drugs that may cause potassium loss (Hypokalemia Drugs)
- Drugs to Treat Irregular Heartbeats
- Sevoflurane, an anesthetic
- Thiazide Drugs
- Anti-Diabetic Drugs (such as glimepiride, glyburide, insulin, metformin, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone)
- Anti-Platelet Drugs
- Diuretics (Water Pills)
Aloe is not a "drug", so the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label, or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use.
1. Dal'Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM. Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques. Skin Res Technol. 2006 Nov;12(4):241-6. 2. Hall TJ, Wren MW, Jeanes A, Gant VA. A comparison of the antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity to cultured human skin cells of 7 commercial hand rubs and Xgel, a new copper-based biocidal hand rub. Am J Infect Control. 2009 May;37(4):322-6. 3. West DP, Zhu YF. Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure. Am J Infect Control. 2003 Feb;31(1):40-2. 4. Choonhakarn C, Busaracome P, Sripanidkulchai B, Sarakarn P. The efficacy of aloe vera gel in the treatment of oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2008 Mar;158(3):573-7. 5. Mansourian A, Momen-Heravi F, Saheb-Jamee M, Esfehani M, Khalilzadeh O, Momen-Beitollahi J. Comparison of aloe vera mouthwash with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% on oral lichen planus: a randomized double-blinded clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2011 Dec;342(6):447-51. 6. Reddy RL, Reddy RS, Ramesh T, Singh TR, Swapna LA, Laxmi NV. Randomized trial of aloe vera gel vs triamcinolone acetonide ointment in the treatment of oral lichen planus. Quintessence Int. 2012 Oct;43(9):793-800. 7. Salazar-Sánchez N, López-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Sánchez-Siles M. Efficacy of topical Aloe vera in patients with oral lichen planus: a randomized double-blind study. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010 Nov;39(10):735-40. 8. Poor MR, Hall JE, Poor AS. Reduction in the incidence of alveolar osteitis in patients treated with the SaliCept patch, containing Acemannan hydrogel. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Apr;60(4):374-9; discussion 379. 9. Lewis JE, McDaniel HR, Agronin ME, Loewenstein DA, Riveros J, Mestre R, Martinez M, Colina N, Abreu D, Konefal J, Woolger JM, Ali KH. The effect of an aloe polymannose multinutrient complex on cognitive and immune functioning in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;33(2):393-406. 10. Vinson JA, Al Kharrat H, Andreoli L. Effect of Aloe vera preparations on the human bioavailability of vitamins C and E. Phytomedicine. 2005 Nov;12(10):760-5. 11. Yun JM, Singh S, Jialal R, Rockwood J, Jialal I, Devaraj S. A randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial of aloe vera on bioavailability of vitamins C and B(12), blood glucose, and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. J Diet Suppl. 2010 Jun;7(2):145-53. 12. Lissoni P, Giani L, Zerbini S, Trabattoni P, Rovelli F. Biotherapy with the pineal immunomodulating hormone melatonin versus melatonin plus aloe vera in untreatable advanced solid neoplasms. Nat Immun. 1998;16(1):27-33. 13. López-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Molino-Pagan D. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical evaluation of Aloe vera Barbadensis, applied in combination with a tongue protector to treat burning mouth syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013 Apr;42(4):295-301. 14. Odes HS, Madar Z. A double-blind trial of a celandin, aloevera and psyllium laxative preparation in adult patients with constipation. Digestion. 1991;49(2):65-71. 15. Panahi Y, Sharif MR, Sharif A, Beiraghdar F, Zahiri Z, Amirchoopani G, Marzony ET, Sahebkar A. A randomized comparative trial on the therapeutic efficacy of topical aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on diaper dermatitis in children. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:810234. 16. Morales-Bozo I, Rojas G, Ortega-Pinto A, Espinoza I, Soto L, Plaza A, Lozano C, Urzúa B. Evaluation of the efficacy of two mouthrinses formulated for the relief of xerostomia of diverse origin in adult subjects. Gerodontology. 2012 Jun;29(2):e1103-12. 17. Heggers JP, Robson MC, Manavalen K, Weingarten MD, Carethers JM, Boertman JA, Smith DJ Jr, Sachs RJ. Experimental and clinical observations on frostbite. Ann Emerg Med. 1987 Sep;16(9):1056-62. 18. Chandrahas B, Jayakumar A, Naveen A, Butchibabu K, Reddy PK, Muralikrishna T. A randomized, double-blind clinical study to assess the antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of Aloe vera mouth rinse. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2012 Oct;16(4):543-8. 19. De Oliveira SM, Torres TC, Pereira SL, Mota OM, Carlos MX. Effect of a dentifrice containing Aloe vera on plaque and gingivitis control. A double-blind clinical study in humans. J Appl Oral Sci. 2008 Jul-Aug;16(4):293-6. 20. Namiranian H, Serino G. The effect of a toothpaste containing aloe vera on established gingivitis. Swed Dent J. 2012;36(4):179-85. 21. Pradeep AR, Agarwal E, Naik SB. Clinical and microbiologic effects of commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2012 Jun;83(6):797-804. 22. Hall TJ, Wren MW, Jeanes A, Gant VA. A comparison of the antibacterial efficacy and cytotoxicity to cultured human skin cells of 7 commercial hand rubs and Xgel, a new copper-based biocidal hand rub. Am J Infect Control. 2009 May;37(4):322-6. 23. Olatunya OS, Olatunya AM, Anyabolu HC, Adejuyigbe EA, Oyelami OA. Preliminary trial of aloe vera gruel on HIV infection. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Sep;18(9):850-3. 24. Langmead L, Feakins RM, Goldthorpe S, Holt H, Tsironi E, De Silva A, Jewell DP, Rampton DS. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr 1;19(7):739-47. 25. Hegazy SK, El-Bedewy M, Yagi A. Antifibrotic effect of aloe vera in viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012 May 7;18(17):2026-34. 26. Panahi Y, Davoudi SM, Sahebkar A, Beiraghdar F, Dadjo Y, Feizi I, Amirchoopani G, Zamani A. Efficacy of Aloe vera/olive oil cream versus betamethasone cream for chronic skin lesions following sulfur mustard exposure: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2012 Jun;31(2):95-103. 27. Gao M, Singh A, Macri K, Reynolds C, Singhal V, Biswal S, Spannhake EW. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system. Respir Res. 2011 Jul 13;12:92. 28. Bruce S, Watson J. Evaluation of a prescription strength 4% hydroquinone/10% L-ascorbic acid treatment system for normal to oily skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Dec;10(12):1455-61. 29. Sudarshan R, Annigeri RG, Sree Vijayabala G. Aloe vera in the treatment for oral submucous fibrosis - a preliminary study. J Oral Pathol Med. 2012 Nov;41(10):755-61. 30. Bhalang K, Thunyakitpisal P, Rungsirisatean N. Acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera, is effective in the treatment of oral aphthous ulceration. J Altern Complement Med. 2013 May;19(5):429-34. 31. Choi HC, Kim SJ, Son KY, Oh BJ, Cho BL. Metabolic effects of aloe vera gel complex in obese prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients: randomized controlled trial. Nutrition. 2013 Sep;29(9):1110-4. 32. Devaraj S, Yimam M, Brownell LA, Jialal I, Singh S, Jia Q. Effects of Aloe vera supplementation in subjects with prediabetes/metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013 Feb;11(1):35-40. 33. Thomas DR, Goode PS, LaMaster K, Tennyson T. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial. Adv Wound Care. 1998 Oct;11(6):273-6. 34. Choonhakarn C, Busaracome P, Sripanidkulchai B, Sarakarn P. A prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing topical aloe vera with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Feb;24(2):168-72. 35. Paulsen E, Korsholm L, Brandrup F. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005 May;19(3):326-31. 36. Syed TA, Ahmad SA, Holt AH, Ahmad SA, Ahmad SH, Afzal M. Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health. 1996 Aug;1(4):505-9. 37. Oyelami OA, Onayemi A, Oyedeji OA, Adeyemi LA. Preliminary study of effectiveness of aloe vera in scabies treatment. Phytother Res. 2009 Oct;23(10):1482-4. 38. Khorasani G, Hosseinimehr SJ, Azadbakht M, Zamani A, Mahdavi MR. Aloe versus silver sulfadiazine creams for second-degree burns: a randomized controlled study. Surg Today. 2009;39(7):587-91. 39. Shahzad MN, Ahmed N. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel compared with 1% silver sulphadiazine cream as burn wound dressing in second degree burns. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013 Feb;63(2):225-30. 40. Di Franco R, Sammarco E, Calvanese MG, De Natale F, Falivene S, Di Lecce A, Giugliano FM, Murino P, Manzo R, Cappabianca S, Muto P, Ravo V. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams. Radiat Oncol. 2013 Mar 12;8:57. 41. Fisher J, Scott C, Stevens R, Marconi B, Champion L, Freedman GM, Asrari F, Pilepich MV, Gagnon JD, Wong G. Randomized phase III study comparing Best Supportive Care to Biafine as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity for women undergoing breast irradiation: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-13. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000 Dec 1;48(5):1307-10. 42. Heggie S, Bryant GP, Tripcony L, Keller J, Rose P, Glendenning M, Heath J. A Phase III study on the efficacy of topical aloe vera gel on irradiated breast tissue. Cancer Nurs. 2002 Dec;25(6):442-51. 43. Nyström J, Svensk AC, Lindholm-Sethson B, Geladi P, Larson J, Franzén L. Comparison of three instrumental methods for the objective evaluation of radiotherapy induced erythema in breast cancer patients and a study of the effect of skin lotions. Acta Oncol. 2007;46(7):893-9. 44. Olsen DL, Raub W Jr, Bradley C, Johnson M, Macias JL, Love V, Markoe A. The effect of aloe vera gel/mild soap versus mild soap alone in preventing skin reactions in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2001 Apr;28(3):543-7. 45. Williams MS, Burk M, Loprinzi CL, Hill M, Schomberg PJ, Nearhood K, O'Fallon JR, Laurie JA, Shanahan TG, Moore RL, Urias RE, Kuske RR, Engel RE, Eggleston WD. Phase III double-blind evaluation of an aloe vera gel as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1996 Sep 1;36(2):345-9. 46. Puvabanditsin P, Vongtongsri R. Efficacy of aloe vera cream in prevention and treatment of sunburn and suntan. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005 Sep;88 Suppl 4:S173-6. 47. Reuter J, Jocher A, Stump J, Grossjohann B, Franke G, Schempp CM. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe vera gel (97.5%) in the ultraviolet erythema test. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;21(2):106-10. 48. Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Hajiaghaee R, Dabaghian FH. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of Aloe vera leaf gel in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med. 2012 Mar;78(4):311-6. 49. Rajar UD, Majeed R, Parveen N, Sheikh I, Sushel C. Efficacy of aloe vera gel in the treatment of vulval lichen planus. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008 Oct;18(10):612-4. 50. Choi HC, Kim SJ, Son KY, Oh BJ, Cho BL. Metabolic effects of aloe vera gel complex in obese prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients: randomized controlled trial. Nutrition. 2013 Sep;29(9):1110-4. 51. Eshghi F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Rahmani N, Khademloo M, Norozi MS, Hojati O. Effects of Aloe vera cream on posthemorrhoidectomy pain and wound healing: results of a randomized, blind, placebo-control study. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jun;16(6):647-50. 52. Lee G, Anand SC, Rajendran S. Are biopolymers potential deodourising agents in wound management? J Wound Care. 2009 Jul;18(7):290, 292-5. 53. Schmidt JM, Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jul;78(1):115-7. 54. Garnick JJ, Singh B, Winkley G. Effectiveness of a medicament containing silicon dioxide, aloe, and allantoin on aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1998 Nov;86(5):550-6. 55. Davis K, Philpott S, Kumar D, Mendall M. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of aloe vera for irritable bowel syndrome. Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Sep;60(9):1080-6. 56. Su CK, Mehta V, Ravikumar L, Shah R, Pinto H, Halpern J, Koong A, Goffinet D, Le QT. Phase II double-blind randomized study comparing oral aloe vera versus placebo to prevent radiation-related mucositis in patients with head-and-neck neoplasms. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Sep 1;60(1):171-7. 57. Bottenberg MM, Wall GC, Harvey RL, Habib S. Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Oct;41(10):1740-3. 58. DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA. The review of natural products: the most complete source of natural product information. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2012. 59. Ferreira M, Teixeira M, Silva E, Selores M. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera. Contact Dermatitis. 2007 Oct;57(4):278-9. 60. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 61. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 62. Hunter D, Frumkin A. Adverse reactions to vitamin E and aloe vera preparations after dermabrasion and chemical peel. Cutis. 1991 Mar;47(3):193-6. 63. Jiménez-Encarnación E, Ríos G, Muñoz-Mirabal A, Vilá LM. Euforia-induced acute hepatitis in a patient with scleroderma. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 Dec 19;2012. 64. Morrow DM, Rapaport MJ, Strick RA. Hypersensitivity to aloe. Arch Dermatol. 1980 Sep;116(9):1064-5. 65. Rabe C, Musch A, Schirmacher P, Kruis W, Hoffmann R. Acute hepatitis induced by an Aloe vera preparation: a case report. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jan 14;11(2):303-4. 66. Rodriguez-Fragoso L, Reyes-Esparza J, Burchiel SW, Herrera-Ruiz D, Torres E. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 15;227(1):125-35. 67. Schmidt JM, Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jul;78(1):115-7. 68. Tsai HH, Lin HW, Simon Pickard A, Tsai HY, Mahady GB. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review. Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;66(11):1056-78. 69. Vogler BK, Ernst E. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. Br J Gen Pract. 1999 Oct;49(447):823-8. 70. Willems M, van Buuren HR, de Krijger R. Anthranoid self-medication causing rapid development of melanosis coli. Neth J Med. 2003 Jan;61(1):22-4. 71. Yang HN, Kim DJ, Kim YM, Kim BH, Sohn KM, Choi MJ, Choi YH. Aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. J Korean Med Sci. 2010 Mar;25(3):492-5. 72. DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA. The review of natural products: the most complete source of natural product information. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2012. 73. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 74. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 75. Lee A, Chui PT, Aun CS, Gin T, Lau AS. Possible interaction between sevoflurane and Aloe vera. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Oct;38(10):1651-4. 76. Rodriguez-Fragoso L, Reyes-Esparza J, Burchiel SW, Herrera-Ruiz D, Torres E. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 15;227(1):125-35. 77. Tsai HH, Lin HW, Simon Pickard A, Tsai HY, Mahady GB. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review. Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;66(11):1056-78. 78. Afendi FM, Okada T, Yamazaki M, Hirai-Morita A, Nakamura Y, Nakamura K, Ikeda S, Takahashi H, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Darusman LK, Saito K, Kanaya S. KNApSAcK family databases: integrated metabolite-plant species databases for multifaceted plant research. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012 Feb;53(2):e1.