Turmeric

Updated | 2019-03-04


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Turmeric


Overview

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa


Order: Zingiberales


Family: Zingiberaceae


Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is widely used in Asian cuisine as a spice (e.g., curry) and natural food coloring agent. Turmeric is considered to have anti-cancer properties; however, most studies are done with isolated cancer cells, but not in humans. The rhizomes of turmeric are bright yellow due to presence of the curcuminoid, curcumin. Curcumin comprises of about 1 to 9% of the rhizome by weight [Dhakal et al. 2016]. The curcumin content in turmeric rhizomes depends on the location of cultivated plants, plant age, and soil quality. Many food manufactures use turmeric as an alternative to artificial yellow food coloring. Curcuma domestica is a synonym of Curcuma longa.



Evidence

Strong:

-

Good:

  • Osteoarthritis/Joint Pain [2-6]
    • Turmeric alone; turmeric / zinc complex; turmeric in combination with Boswellia; and turmeric in combination with Boswellia, cayenne, ginger root, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, methyl sufonlyl methane (MSM), and white willow bark extract seem to have promising evidence for treating osteoarthritis and joint pain

Promising:

-

Conflicting (Unclear):

-

Limited Evidence:

  • Anti-Acne, gel containing carbopol and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) along with the plant extracts of Rauvolfia serpentine, Azadirachta indica, and turmeric [7]
  • Anti-Viral, turmeric essential oil [8]
  • Anti-Bacterial [9-10]
  • Arthritis, turmeric with ginger [11]
  • Baldness, a combination of 5% hexane extract of another species, Curcuma aeruginosa and 5% minoxidil slowed hair loss and increased hair growth [12]
  • Bowel Motility and Carbohydrate Colonic Fermentation [13]
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, turmeric in combination with imatinib [14]
  • Dental Plaque [15-16]
  • Dry Eyes, eye drop containing turmeric, Carum copticum, Terminalia bellirica, Phyllanthus emblica, Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum camphora, Rosa damascene, and meldespumapum [17]
  • Gingivitis [18-19]
  • Hepatotoxicity from Tuberculosis (TB) Treatment [20]
  • Indigestion [21]
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) [22-23]
  • Liver Health [24]
  • Lupus Nephritis [25]
  • Odor of Malignant Fungating Wounds [26]
  • Oral Submucous Fibrosis, reversed with turmeric oil [27]
  • Postoperative Fatigue and Pain after Gallbladder Removal [28]
  • Stomach Ulcers [29]
  • Type 2 Diabetes [30]
  • Type 2 Diabetes Nephropathy [31]

No Evidence:

  • Breast Cancer Prevention in Premenopausal Women [32]
  • Helicobactor pylori Infection [33-34]
  • Overweight/Obese-Induced Inflammation [35]
  • Weight Loss [36-37]

No Clinical Research:

All other conditions.


Side Effects
Side effects may include:
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Gassiness
  • Gastrointestinal Upset
Precautions and Adverse Events:
  • Avoid if you have bile duct diseases, bleeding disorders, gallbladder diseases (such as, gallstones), hyperacidity, or stomach ulcers.
  • Turmeric stains clothes, surfaces, and the skin.
  • A study found that turmeric does not affect iron absorption; however, the main compound in turmeric, curcumin, induced-iron deficiency anemia in mice.
  • There was a case of anaphylaxis after an individual ingested turmeric and this individual experienced angioedema and urticaria over a 3-day period.
  • A patient had non-immune anaphylaxis reaction after taking dextran sulphate cellulose adsorption (Liposorber) with turmeric.
  • Ingestion of turmeric appears to have no adverse impact on patient-reported outcomes after stapled hemorrhoidectomy.
  • Extended use or high doses, including overdoses, of turmeric can cause gastrointestinal problems.
  • Turmeric may cause kidney stone formation in susceptible individuals because of its oxalate content.
  • Turmeric can cause contact urticaria (redness and swelling of the skin) and contact dermatitis.
  • A turmeric, vinegar, and lime juice mixture caused photodermatitis.
  • Overall, turmeric appears to be a safe natural medicine.
[38-49]


Pregnant or Nursing

If you are pregnant or may be pregnant, using turmeric may cause miscarriages or premature births. This herb has menstrual and uterine stimulant properties. There is not enough research on the use of supplements containing turmeric during breast-feeding, so consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use or avoid use. [38-49]



Interactions

Major

  • CYP1A2 (inhibits) and CYP2A6 (enhances)
  • Dextran Sulphate Cellulose Adsorption (Liposorber)
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Talinolol
[50-60]

Moderate

  • Warfarin
  • Anti-Coagulants
  • Anti-Platelet Drugs
  • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Salicylates
  • Thrombolytic Agents
[50-60]

Potential

  • Immunosuppressant Drugs
  • Turmeric may NOT interact with Flurbiprofen, Midazolam, Paracetamol, Iron-Containing Products, and Nifedipine
[50-60]


Dosage

Turmeric is not a "drug", the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use.



Compounds
Turmeric compounds


References

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The "-" means there is no information.