Cranberry

Updated | 2018-11-29


See what others say about Cranberry:



Cranberry


Overview

Botanical Name: Vaccinium macrocarpon


Order: Ericales


Family: Ericaceae


Numerous papers have been published describing the health potential of cranberry juice. In other cases, the health potential of raw and dried cranberries have been described. We also provide information on the nutritional value of cranberries.



Evidence

Strong:

-

Good:

  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), there may also be some evidence that cranberry may relieve UTI related to prostrate problems and prevent UTI in pregnant women [1-28]

Promising:

  • Heart Disease (may reduce) [29-34]
  • Diabetes, sugar free cranberry juice may be beneficial for diabetics [35-38]
  • Helicobactor pylori infection [39-41]

Conflicting (Unclear):

-

Limited Evidence:

  • Bone Health [42]
  • Vertigo [43]
  • Urinary Tract Infections of Spinal Cord Injured Patients [44]

No Evidence:


No Clinical Research:

All other conditions.


Side Effects
Side effects may include:
  • Diarrhea
  • Gastrointestinal Upset
  • Nausea
Precautions and Adverse Events:
  • Avoid or contact a licensed healthcare practitioner, if you have allergies to aspirin, atrophic gastritis, diabetes (if the product has added sugar), hypochlorhydria (achlorhydria), or kidney stones (and have had a history of kidney stones).
[48-51]


Pregnant or Nursing

Cranberry juice and fruits are safe for consumption in food amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding. There is not enough research on the use of supplements containing cranberry during pregnancy and breast-feeding, so consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use or avoid use. [48-51]



Interactions

Major

-

Moderate

  • Warfarin
  • H2 Blockers
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
[52-63]

Potential

-


Dosage

If cranberry juice is consumed in large doses (more than 1 liter), oxalate content in the juice may increase the risk of developing kidney stones. [64] However, cranberry is not a "drug", so the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label, or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use.



Compounds
Cranberry compounds


References

1. Afshar K, Stothers L, Scott H, MacNeily AE. Cranberry juice for the prevention of pediatric urinary tract infection: a randomized controlled trial. J Urol. 2012 Oct;188(4 Suppl):1584-7. 2. Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz JH, Glynn RJ, Choodnovskiy I, Lipsitz LA. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice. JAMA. 1994 Mar 9;271(10):751-4. 3. Bailey DT, Dalton C, Joseph Daugherty F, Tempesta MS. Can a concentrated cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study. Phytomedicine. 2007 Apr;14(4):237-41. 4. Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, Zhang L, DeBusscher J, Foxman B. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52(1):23-30. 5. Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, van der Wal WM, de Borgie CA, de Reijke TM, Prins JM, Koeijers J, Verbon A, Stobberingh E, Geerlings SE. Cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Jul 25;171(14):1270-8. 6. Campbell G, Pickles T, D'yachkova Y. A randomised trial of cranberry versus apple juice in the management of urinary symptoms during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2003 Sep;15(6):322-8. 7. Cowan CC, Hutchison C, Cole T, Barry SJ, Paul J, Reed NS, Russell JM. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of cranberry juice on decreasing the incidence of urinary symptoms and urinary tract infections in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer of the bladder or cervix. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2012 Mar;24(2):e31-8. 8. Di Martino P, Agniel R, David K, Templer C, Gaillard JL, Denys P, Botto H. Reduction of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial bladder cells after consumption of cranberry juice: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial. World J Urol. 2006 Feb;24(1):21-7. 9. Efros M, Bromberg W, Cossu L, Nakeleski E, Katz AE. Novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, might help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Urology. 2010 Oct;76(4):841-5. 10. Ferrara P, Romaniello L, Vitelli O, Gatto A, Serva M, Cataldi L. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial in children. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(5):369-72. 11. Jass J, Reid G. Effect of cranberry drink on bacterial adhesion in vitro and vaginal microbiota in healthy females. Can J Urol. 2009 Dec;16(6):4901-7. 12. Kontiokari T, Salo J, Eerola E, Uhari M. Cranberry juice and bacterial colonization in children--a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;24(6):1065-72. 13. Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, Pokka T, Koskela M, Uhari M. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ. 2001 Jun 30;322(7302):1571. 14. Lavigne JP, Bourg G, Combescure C, Botto H, Sotto A. In-vitro and in-vivo evidence of dose-dependent decrease of uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence after consumption of commercial Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) capsules. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008 Apr;14(4):350-5. 15. Lee YL, Najm WI, Owens J, Thrupp L, Baron S, Shanbrom E, Cesario T. Anti-microbial Activity of Urine after Ingestion of Cranberry: A Pilot Study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 Jun;7(2):227-32. 16. Linsenmeyer TA, Harrison B, Oakley A, Kirshblum S, Stock JA, Millis SR. Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Spinal Cord Med. 2004;27(1):29-34. 17. McMurdo ME, Argo I, Phillips G, Daly F, Davey P. Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections? A randomized controlled trial in older women. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Feb;63(2):389-95. 18. Salo J, Uhari M, Helminen M, Korppi M, Nieminen T, Pokka T, Kontiokari T. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrences of urinary tract infections in children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb 1;54(3):340-6. 19. Schlager TA, Anderson S, Trudell J, Hendley JO. Effect of cranberry juice on bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization. J Pediatr. 1999 Dec;135(6):698-702. 20. Shmuely H, Yahav J, Samra Z, Chodick G, Koren R, Niv Y, Ofek I. Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):746-51. 21. Stapleton AE, Dziura J, Hooton TM, Cox ME, Yarova-Yarovaya Y, Chen S, Gupta K. Recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary Escherichia coli in women ingesting cranberry juice daily: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Feb;87(2):143-50. 22. Stothers L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can J Urol. 2002 Jun;9(3):1558-62. 23. Takahashi S, Hamasuna R, Yasuda M, Arakawa S, Tanaka K, Ishikawa K, Kiyota H, Hayami H, Yamamoto S, Kubo T, Matsumoto T. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the preventive effect of cranberry juice (UR65) for patients with recurrent urinary tract infection. J Infect Chemother. 2013 Feb;19(1):112-7. 24. Valentova K, Stejskal D, Bednar P, Vostalova J, Cíhalík C, Vecerova R, Koukalova D, Kolar M, Reichenbach R, Sknouril L, Ulrichova J, Simanek V. Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Apr 18;55(8):3217-24. 25. Vidlar A, Vostalova J, Ulrichova J, Student V, Stejskal D, Reichenbach R, Vrbkova J, Ruzicka F, Simanek V. The effectiveness of dried cranberries ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Br J Nutr. 2010 Oct;104(8):1181-9. 26. Vinson JA, Bose P, Proch J, Al Kharrat H, Samman N. Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jul 23;56(14):5884-91. 27. Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Leu SY, Zaldivar F. Comparison of urinary cytokines after ingestion of cranberry juice cocktail in pregnant subjects: a pilot study. Am J Perinatol. 2010 Feb;27(2):137-42. 28. Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Preslicka CW, Chung JH. Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized, controlled pilot study. J Urol. 2008 Oct;180(4):1367-72. 29. Basu A, Betts NM, Ortiz J, Simmons B, Wu M, Lyons TJ. Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res. 2011 Mar;31(3):190-6. 30. Dohadwala MM, Holbrook M, Hamburg NM, Shenouda SM, Chung WB, Titas M, Kluge MA, Wang N, Palmisano J, Milbury PE, Blumberg JB, Vita JA. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May;93(5):934-40. 31. Duthie SJ, Jenkinson AM, Crozier A, Mullen W, Pirie L, Kyle J, Yap LS, Christen P, Duthie GG. The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(2):113-22. 32. Ruel G, Lapointe A, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C. Evidence that cranberry juice may improve augmentation index in overweight men. Nutr Res. 2013 Jan;33(1):41-9. 33. Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels are reduced following low-calorie cranberry juice supplementation in men. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Dec;28(6):694-701. 34. Simão TN, Lozovoy MA, Simão AN, Oliveira SR, Venturini D, Morimoto HK, Miglioranza LH, Dichi I. Reduced-energy cranberry juice increases folic acid and adiponectin and reduces homocysteine and oxidative stress in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2013 Nov;110(10):1885-94. 35. Lee IT, Chan YC, Lin CW, Lee WJ, Sheu WH. Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2008 Dec;25(12):1473-7. 36. Wilson T, Luebke JL, Morcomb EF, Carrell EJ, Leveranz MC, Kobs L, Schmidt TP, Limburg PJ, Vorsa N, Singh AP. Glycemic responses to sweetened dried and raw cranberries in humans with type 2 diabetes. J Food Sci. 2010 Oct;75(8):H218-23. 37. Wilson T, Meyers SL, Singh AP, Limburg PJ, Vorsa N. Favorable glycemic response of type 2 diabetics to low-calorie cranberry juice. J Food Sci. 2008 Nov;73(9):H241-5. 38. Wilson T, Singh AP, Vorsa N, Goettl CD, Kittleson KM, Roe CM, Kastello GM, Ragsdale FR. Human glycemic response and phenolic content of unsweetened cranberry juice. J Med Food. 2008 Mar;11(1):46-54. 39. Gotteland M, Andrews M, Toledo M, Muñoz L, Caceres P, Anziani A, Wittig E, Speisky H, Salazar G. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children. Nutrition. 2008 May;24(5):421-6. 40. Shmuely H, Yahav J, Samra Z, Chodick G, Koren R, Niv Y, Ofek I. Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):746-51. 41. Zhang L, Ma J, Pan K, Go VL, Chen J, You WC. Efficacy of cranberry juice on Helicobacter pylori infection: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Helicobacter. 2005 Apr;10(2):139-45. 42. Flammer AJ, Martin EA, Gössl M, Widmer RJ, Lennon RJ, Sexton JA, Loeffler D, Khosla S, Lerman LO, Lerman A. Polyphenol-rich cranberry juice has a neutral effect on endothelial function but decreases the fraction of osteocalcin-expressing endothelial progenitor cells. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):289-96. 43. Dyckman DJ, Sauder CL, Ray CA. Glycerol-induced fluid shifts attenuate the vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Mar;300(3):R630-4. 44. Duthie SJ, Jenkinson AM, Crozier A, Mullen W, Pirie L, Kyle J, Yap LS, Christen P, Duthie GG. The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(2):113-22. 45. Hess MJ, Hess PE, Sullivan MR, Nee M, Yalla SV. Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder. Spinal Cord. 2008 Sep;46(9):622-6. 46. Lee BB, Haran MJ, Hunt LM, Simpson JM, Marial O, Rutkowski SB, Middleton JW, Kotsiou G, Tudehope M, Cameron ID. Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial. Spinal Cord. 2007 Aug;45(8):542-50. 47. Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, DeVivo MJ. Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2004;27(1):35-40. 48. DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA. The review of natural products: the most complete source of natural product information. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2012. 49. Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, Mills E, Koren G. Safety and efficacy of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Winter;15(1):e80-6. 50. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 51. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 52. DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA. The review of natural products: the most complete source of natural product information. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2012. 53. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 54. Grant P. Warfarin and cranberry juice: an interaction? J Heart Valve Dis. 2004 Jan;13(1):25-6. 55. Griffiths AP, Beddall A, Pegler S. Fatal haemopericardium and gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to possible interaction of cranberry juice with warfarin. J R Soc Promot Health. 2008 Nov;128(6):324-6. 56. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 57. Haber SL, Cauthon KA, Raney EC. Cranberry and warfarin interaction: a case report and review of the literature. Consult Pharm. 2012 Jan;27(1):58-65. 58. Hamann GL, Campbell JD, George CM. Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction. Ann Pharmacother. 2011 Mar;45(3):e17. 59. Mergenhagen KA, Sherman O. Elevated International Normalized Ratio after concurrent ingestion of cranberry sauce and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008 Nov 15;65(22):2113-6. 60. Paeng CH, Sprague M, Jackevicius CA. Interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. Clin Ther. 2007 Aug;29(8):1730-5. 61. Pham DQ, Pham AQ. Interaction potential between cranberry juice and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007 Mar 1;64(5):490-4. 62. Rindone JP, Murphy TW. Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction resulting in profound hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding. Am J Ther. 2006 May-Jun;13(3):283-4. 63. Zikria J, Goldman R, Ansell J. Cranberry juice and warfarin: when bad publicity trumps science. Am J Med. 2010 May;123(5):384-92. 64. Gettman MT, Ogan K, Brinkley LJ, Adams-Huet B, Pak CY, Pearle MS. Effect of cranberry juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol. 2005 Aug;174(2):590-4; quiz 801.

The "-" means there is no information.