Overview of Elderberry
Scientific Name: Sambucus nigra
The elderberry (Sambucus nigra) plant is a medium-sized tree native to Europe and North America. Elderberry is sometimes called black elder because the fruits have a dark purple color. This color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, a type of flavonoid compound. Like many fruits, elderberries are high in vitamin C. More information on the nutritional content of this fruit can be found on the food nutrition facts page of elderberry. Only consume the flowers and ripe berries. Consuming other parts of the elderberry tree and unripe berries is toxic. The flowers are sometimes used in herbal medicine to make an elderberry tea. However, the berries are more commonly consumed for their medicinal properties. Elderberry supplements are most often sold in the form of gummies, syrups, or tinctures. Although not as common, elderberry juice can also be found in some stores. The anthocyanins and other flavonoids in elderberries may have immune stimulating properties, thereby reducing cold and flu-like symptoms. Oftentimes, elderberry gummies and elderberry syrups are in the same aisle as over-the-counter (OTC) cold and flu medications. Due to the antibacterial and antiviral activities of elderberry, this may explain why mouthwashes and gingival patches containing elderberries can treat gingivitis. Cold, flu, and gingivitis can cause an inflammatory response in the body. The flavonoids in elderberry may play a role in reducing inflammation because these compounds may lessen the effects of oxidative stress in the body. There is no evidence that elderberry can stimulate the immune system against SARS-CoV-2.
- Gingivitis, a mouthwash or gingival patch with elderberry / Centella asiatica / Echinacea pupurea may also be effective [1-4]
- Immune Stimulant and Flu [5-7]
Conflicting (Unclear):insufficient information
- Acute Viral Sinusitis, elderberry flower with gentian root / primula flower / sorrel herb / verbena herb 
- Constipation, elderberry with Pimpinella anisum / Foeniculum vulgare / Cassia augustifolia 
- Cardiovascular Disease in Post-Menopausal Women, no increase in anthocyanin compounds 
- Cholesterol and Triglycerides (affects), a higher concentration of elderberry may work 
- Stones in Urinary Tract 
No Clinical Research:All other conditions.
- Avoid or contact a licensed healthcare practitioner, if you are a diabetic as elderberry may be harmful.
- There is a risk of cyanide poisoning if the leaves, shoots, bark, roots, and young berries are ingested; symptoms may include dizziness, headache, convulsions, gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and tachycardia.
- Only harvest fully ripe purple berries because younger berries are slightly toxic.
- Taking elderberry bark may stimulate hyperplasia of the small intestines.
- A protein from elderberry may be an allergen.
There is not enough research on the use of supplements containing elderberry during pregnancy and breast-feeding, so consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use or avoid use. Elderberry may cause gastrointestinal upset in pregnant woman. [13-16]
Elderberry is not a "drug", the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label, or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use. However, it was reported that 500mg/day of elderberry did not alter liver and kidney functions. 
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