Fenugreek

Updated | 2019-04-23


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Fenugreek


Overview

Botanical Name: Trigonella foenum-graecum


Order: Fabeles


Family: Fabaceae


The seeds are ground and used as an ingredient in curry. Fenugreek seeds are high in iron, copper, and manganese.



Evidence

Strong:

-

Good:

  • Type 2 Diabetes, a combination of fenugreek and sulfonylureas may also be effective [1-7]

Promising:

  • Reduces Dietary Fat Intake/Satiety, consumption of fenugreek dietary fiber or a blend containing fenugreek dietary fiber / guar gum / wheat bran may be effective [8-11]

Conflicting (Unclear):

-

Limited Evidence:

  • Coronary Hearth Disease (CHD), a blend containing fenugreek dietary fiber / guar gum / wheat bran may also be effective [12-13]
  • Galactogogue [14-15]
  • Type 1 Diabetes [16]

No Evidence:

  • Anti-Oxidants in Breast Milk [17]

No Clinical Research:

All other conditions.


Side Effects
Side effects may include:
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Bleeding
  • Bloating
  • Bruising
  • Headache
  • Indigestion
  • Maple Syrup Urine Odor
Precautions and Adverse Events:
  • Use caution and monitor your blood sugar levels, if you are taking fenugreek and have diabetes. If you have low blood sugar symptoms, contact a licensed healthcare practitioner.
  • Fenugreek may lower blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia).
  • Some people are allergic to fenugreek.
[18-23]


Pregnant or Nursing

Do not take fenugreek during pregnancy because it may cause uterine contractions. Taking fenugreek during pregnancy may cause the newborn infant to have a maple syrup odor. Fenugreek appears to be safe for consumption in food amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding. There is not enough research on the use of supplements containing fenugreek during pregnancy and breast-feeding, so consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use or avoid use. Fenugreek is commonly used during breast-feeding, but again there is not enough research about its safety. [18-23]



Interactions

Major

-

Moderate

  • Warfarin
  • Anti-Coagulants
  • Anti-Diabetes Drugs
  • Low Molecular Weight Heparins
  • Thrombolytic Agents
[24-27]

Potential

-


Dosage

Fenugreek is not a "drug", so the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label, or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use.



Compounds
Fenugreek compounds


References

1. Abdel-Barry JA, Abdel-Hassan IA, Jawad AM, al-Hakiem MH. Hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteers. East Mediterr Health J. 2000 Jan;6(1):83-8. 2. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 May;56(5):379-84. 3. Gupta A, Gupta R, Lal B. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Nov;49:1057-61. 4. Kassaian N, Azadbakht L, Forghani B, Amini M. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 Jan;79(1):34-9. 5. Losso JN, Holliday DL, Finley JW, Martin RJ, Rood JC, Yu Y, Greenway FL. Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus. J Med Food. 2009 Oct;12(5):1046-9. 6. Lu FR, Shen L, Qin Y, Gao L, Li H, Dai Y. Clinical observation on Trigonella foenum-graecum L. total saponins in combination with sulfonylureas in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chin J Integr Med. 2008 Mar;14(1):56-60. 7. Madar Z, Abel R, Samish S, Arad J. Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin dependent diabetics. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988 Jan;42(1):51-4. 8. Chevassus H, Gaillard JB, Farret A, Costa F, Gabillaud I, Mas E, Dupuy AM, Michel F, Cantié C, Renard E, Galtier F, Petit P. A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 May;66(5):449-55. 9. Chevassus H, Molinier N, Costa F, Galtier F, Renard E, Petit P. A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;65(12):1175-8. 10. Mathern JR, Raatz SK, Thomas W, Slavin JL. Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects. Phytother Res. 2009 Nov;23(11):1543-8. 11. Vajifdar BU, Goyal VS, Lokhandwala YY, Mhamunkar SR, Mahadik SP, Gawad AK, Halankar SA, Kulkarni HL. Is dietary fiber beneficial in chronic ischemic heart disease? J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Sep;48(9):871-6. 12. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 May;56(5):379-84. 13. Vajifdar BU, Goyal VS, Lokhandwala YY, Mhamunkar SR, Mahadik SP, Gawad AK, Halankar SA, Kulkarni HL. Is dietary fiber beneficial in chronic ischemic heart disease? J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Sep;48(9):871-6. 14. Damanik R, Wahlqvist ML, Wattanapenpaiboon N. Lactagogue effects of Torbangun, a Bataknese traditional cuisine. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(2):267-74. 15. Turkyılmaz C, Onal E, Hirfanoglu IM, Turan O, Koç E, Ergenekon E, Atalay Y. The effect of galactagogue herbal tea on breast milk production and short-term catch-up of birth weight in the first week of life. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Feb;17(2):139-42. 16. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990 Apr;44(4):301-6. 17. Kavurt S, Bas AY, Aydemir O, Yucel H, Isikoglu S, Demirel N. The effect of galactagogue herbal tea on oxidant and anti-oxidant status of human milk. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Jul;26(10):1048-51. 18. DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA. The review of natural products: the most complete source of natural product information. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2012. 19. Ebo DG, Bridts CH, Mertens MH, Stevens WJ. Coriander anaphylaxis in a spice grinder with undetected occupational allergy. Acta Clin Belg. 2006 May-Jun;61(3):152-6. 20. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 21. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 22. Korman SH, Cohen E, Preminger A. Pseudo-maple syrup urine disease due to maternal prenatal ingestion of fenugreek. J Paediatr Child Health. 2001 Aug;37(4):403-4. 23. Patil SP, Niphadkar PV, Bapat MM. Allergy to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997 Mar;78(3):297-300. 24. DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA. The review of natural products: the most complete source of natural product information. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2012. 25. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 26. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 27. Lambert JP, Cormier J. Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek. Pharmacotherapy. 2001 Apr;21(4):509-12.

The "-" means there is no information.