Overview of Ginger
Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale
The rhizomes (modified stems) of ginger are widely used in herbal medicine. The rhizomes are also used to season foods and add flavor to beverages. See the nutritional value of ginger.
- Osteoarthritis/Joint Pain, ginger may also be effective in combination with glucosamine sulfate / methylsulfonylmethane / white willow bark extract / Boswellia serrata extract / turmeric root extract / cayenne / hyaluronic acid; diclofenac; Zingiber cassumunar in a gel; and cinnamon / mastic / sesame oil in an ointment [1-13]
- An extract of ginger / Indian gooseberry / Tinospora cordifolia / Boswellia serrata was also as effective as glucosamine sulfate and celecoxib
- A massage with ginger and orange essential oil was effective in the elderly
- Nausea, ginger may be more effective than 8-MOP and vitamin B6 [14-33]
- Nausea in Pregnant Women, including ginger syrup
- Nausea in Chemotherapy Patients, including ginger with a high protein diet
- Indigestion [34-41]
- Postoperative Nausea (PON), ginger with dexamethasone may also be effective [42-51]
- Painful Menstruation, ginger in one case may be as effective as mefenamic acid and ibuprofen [52-55]
- Anti-Platelet Aggregation in Cardiovascular Health, ginger with nifedipine may be more effective [56-61]
- Colorectal Cancer; interestingly, a light Thai massage with ginger oil was effective [62-65]
- Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [66-67]
- Alcohol Hangover Symptoms, a combination of ginger / Citrus tangerine / brown sugar 
- Anesthesia Recovery in Children, lavender and ginger oil 
- Arthritis, ginger with Tinospora cordifolia [70-71]
- Atopic Dermatitis, fresh ginger with Astragalus root / licorice / jujube / ginseng / white Atractylodes rhizome / Chinese Angelica root [72-73]
- Constipation, complex tea mixture containing mainly senna leaf 
- Chronic Tonsillitis, ginger with gypsum / Bupleurum root / Pinellia tuber / Scutellaria root / Platycodon root / Jujube fruit / ginseng root / Glycyrrhiza root 
- Gingivitis, ginger with Acacia chundra / Adhatoda vasica / Mimusops elengi / Piper nigrum / Pongamia pinnata / Quercus infectoria / Syzygium aromaticum / Terminalia chebula 
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), ginger with Mentha longifolia / Cyperus rotundus 
- Lipid Lowering 
- Migraines, ginger with feverfew [79-80]
- Motion Sickness [81-85]
- Muscle Pain from Exercise [86-88]
- Oxidative Stress in Breast Cancer Patients 
- Problem with Swallowing after Stroke, a spray with ginger / clematis root 
- Satiety 
- Septic Shock Patients, ginger with Glycyrrhiza uralensis / Aconitum carmichaelii 
- Stress, a complex mixture containing Pinelliae tuber 
- Type 2 Diabetes [94-95]
- Vertigo, a ginger moxibustion [96-97]
- Asthma 
- Weight Loss, ginger / rhubarb / Astragalus / red sage / turmeric combined with gallic acid [99-100]
No Clinical Research:All other conditions.
- Allergic Reactions
- Gastrointestinal Complaints
- Avoid or contact a licensed healthcare practitioner, if you have and have had gallstones, and are at a risk for hemorrhage.
- Ginger and ginger spice can cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), especially in women.
- Zingerone, a compound present in ginger is a slight irritant.
- Avoid ginger at least 2 weeks before surgery.
- Ginger may increase the risk of bleeding.
Ginger appears to be safe for consumption in food amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Minor side effects included allergic reactions, heartburn, and sedation. According to a large study in Europe, the use of ginger during pregnancy did NOT increase the risk of congenital malformations, stillbirth/perinatal death, preterm birth, low birth weight, or low Apgar score (a measure of the physical status of a newborn). Ginger is also widely used during pregnancy, but information about its use during breast-feeding is limited, so consult a licensed healthcare practitioner if you have any questions or concerns. In addition, the maximum doses during pregnancy have NOT been established. [101-111]
Ginger is not a "drug", the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label, or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use. Overdose may cause cardiac arrhythmia and central nervous system (CNS) depression. On an empty stomach, 6 grams of ginger may lead to ulcer formation. 
1. Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Nov;44(11):2531-8. 2. Black CD, Herring MP, Hurley DJ, O'Connor PJ. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. J Pain. 2010 Sep;11(9):894-903. 3. Black CD, O'Connor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on muscle pain induced by eccentric exercise. Phytother Res. 2010 Nov;24(11):1620-6. 4. Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, Weidner MS, Andersen LA, Ibfelt HH, Christensen K, Jensen ON, Barslev J. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2000 Jan;8(1):9-12. 5. Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Sumantran V, Raut A, Bichile L, Joshi K, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 Aug;52(8):1408-17. 6. Drozdov VN, Kim VA, Tkachenko EV, Varvanina GG. Influence of a specific ginger combination on gastropathy conditions in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Jun;18(6):583-8. 7. Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J. 2013 Nov 25;12(1):154. 8. Niempoog S, Pawa KK, Amatyakul C. The efficacy of powdered ginger in osteoarthritis of the knee. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012 Jan;95 Suppl 1:S59-64. 9. Niempoog S, Siriarchavatana P, Kajsongkram T. The efficacy of Plygersic gel for use in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012 Oct;95 Suppl 10:S113-9. 10. Paramdeep G. Efficacy and tolerability of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in patients of osteoarthritis of knee. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Apr-Jun;57(2):177-83. 11. Wigler I, Grotto I, Caspi D, Yaron M. The effects of Zintona EC (a ginger extract) on symptomatic gonarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Nov;11(11):783-9. 12. Yip YB, Tam AC. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong. Complement Ther Med. 2008 Jun;16(3):131-8. 13. Zahmatkash M, Vafaeenasab MR. Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Jul 1;14(13):715-9. 14. Chittumma P, Kaewkiattikun K, Wiriyasiriwach B. Comparison of the effectiveness of ginger and vitamin B6 for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Jan;90(1):15-20. 15. Ensiyeh J, Sakineh MA. Comparing ginger and vitamin B6 for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Midwifery. 2009 Dec;25(6):649-53. 16. Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1991 Jan 4;38(1):19-24. 17. Kalava A, Darji SJ, Kalstein A, Yarmush JM, SchianodiCola J, Weinberg J. Efficacy of ginger on intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective cesarean section patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013 Jul;169(2):184-8. 18. Keating A, Chez RA. Ginger syrup as an antiemetic in early pregnancy. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Sep-Oct;8(5):89-91. 19. Levine ME, Gillis MG, Koch SY, Voss AC, Stern RM, Koch KL. Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jun;14(5):545-51. 20. Manusirivithaya S, Sripramote M, Tangjitgamol S, Sheanakul C, Leelahakorn S, Thavaramara T, Tangcharoenpanich K. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004 Nov-Dec;14(6):1063-9. 21. Meyer K, Schwartz J, Crater D, Keyes B. Zingiber officinale (ginger) used to prevent 8-Mop associated nausea. Dermatol Nurs. 1995 Aug;7(4):242-4. 22. Mohammadbeigi R, Shahgeibi S, Soufizadeh N, Rezaiie M, Farhadifar F. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Aug 15;14(16):817-20. 23. Ozgoli G, Goli M, Simbar M. Effects of ginger capsules on pregnancy, nausea, and vomiting. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Mar;15(3):243-6. 24. Panahi Y, Saadat A, Sahebkar A, Hashemian F, Taghikhani M, Abolhasani E. Effect of ginger on acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a pilot, randomized, open-label clinical trial. Integr Cancer Ther. 2012 Sep;11(3):204-11. 25. Pillai AK, Sharma KK, Gupta YK, Bakhshi S. Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Feb;56(2):234-8. 26. Pongrojpaw D, Somprasit C, Chanthasenanont A. A randomized comparison of ginger and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Sep;90(9):1703-9. 27. Portnoi G, Chng LA, Karimi-Tabesh L, Koren G, Tan MP, Einarson A. Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of ginger for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Nov;189(5):1374-7. Erratum in: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;190(4):1140. 28. Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, Dakhil SR, Kirshner J, Flynn PJ, Hickok JT, Morrow GR. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer. 2012 Jul;20(7):1479-89. 29. Smith C, Crowther C, Willson K, Hotham N, McMillian V. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;103(4):639-45. 30. Sripramote M, Lekhyananda N. A randomized comparison of ginger and vitamin B6 in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Sep;86(9):846-53. 31. Vutyavanich T, Kraisarin T, Ruangsri R. Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Apr;97(4):577-82. 32. Willetts KE, Ekangaki A, Eden JA. Effect of a ginger extract on pregnancy-induced nausea: a randomised controlled trial. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003 Apr;43(2):139-44. 33. Zick SM, Ruffin MT, Lee J, Normolle DP, Siden R, Alrawi S, Brenner DE. Phase II trial of encapsulated ginger as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Support Care Cancer. 2009 May;17(5):563-72. 34. Gonlachanvit S, Chen YH, Hasler WL, Sun WM, Owyang C. Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Dec;307(3):1098-103. 35. Hirakawa H, Ueno S, Matuda H, Hinoki T, Kato Y. Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2009 Apr 20;34(1):28-33. 36. Hu ML, Rayner CK, Wu KL, Chuah SK, Tai WC, Chou YP, Chiu YC, Chiu KW, Hu TH. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jan 7;17(1):105-10. 37. Lohsiriwat S, Rukkiat M, Chaikomin R, Leelakusolvong S. Effect of ginger on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Mar;93(3):366-72. 38. Micklefield GH, Redeker Y, Meister V, Jung O, Greving I, May B. Effects of ginger on gastroduodenal motility. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Jul;37(7):341-6. 39. Phillips S, Hutchinson S, Ruggier R. Zingiber officinale does not affect gastric emptying rate. A randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Anaesthesia. 1993 May;48(5):393-5. 40. Shariatpanahi ZV, Taleban FA, Mokhtari M, Shahbazi S. Ginger extract reduces delayed gastric emptying and nosocomial pneumonia in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. J Crit Care. 2010 Dec;25(4):647-50. 41. Wu KL, Rayner CK, Chuah SK, Changchien CS, Lu SN, Chiu YC, Chiu KW, Lee CM. Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 May;20(5):436-40. 42. Apariman S, Ratchanon S, Wiriyasirivej B. Effectiveness of ginger for prevention of nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Dec;89(12):2003-9. 43. Arfeen Z, Owen H, Plummer JL, Ilsley AH, Sorby-Adams RA, Doecke CJ. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1995 Aug;23(4):449-52. 44. Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, McNeil J, Charlton S. Ginger root--a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery. Anaesthesia. 1990 Aug;45(8):669-71. 45. Eberhart LH, Mayer R, Betz O, Tsolakidis S, Hilpert W, Morin AM, Geldner G, Wulf H, Seeling W. Ginger does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg. 2003 Apr;96(4):995-8, table of contents. 46. Hunt R, Dienemann J, Norton HJ, Hartley W, Hudgens A, Stern T, Divine G. Aromatherapy as treatment for postoperative nausea: a randomized trial. Anesth Analg. 2013 Sep;117(3):597-604. 47. Nanthakomon T, Pongrojpaw D. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Oct;89 Suppl 4:S130-6. 48. Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber officinale (ginger)--an antiemetic for day case surgery. Anaesthesia. 1993 Aug;48(8):715-7. 49. Pongrojpaw D, Chiamchanya C. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003 Mar;86(3):244-50. 50. Tavlan A, Tuncer S, Erol A, Reisli R, Aysolmaz G, Otelcioglu S. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy: combined antiemetic treatment with dexamethasone and ginger versus dexamethasone alone. Clin Drug Investig. 2006;26(4):209-14. 51. Visalyaputra S, Petchpaisit N, Somcharoen K, Choavaratana R. The efficacy of ginger root in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia. 1998 May;53(5):506-10. 52. Halder A. Effect of progressive muscle relaxation versus intake of ginger powder on dysmenorrhoea amongst the nursing students in Pune. Nurs J India. 2012 Jul-Aug;103(4):152-6. 53. Jenabi E. The effect of ginger for relieving of primary dysmenorrhoea. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013 Jan;63(1):8-10. 54. Ozgoli G, Goli M, Moattar F. Comparison of effects of ginger, mefenamic acid, and ibuprofen on pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Feb;15(2):129-32. 55. Rahnama P, Montazeri A, Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Naseri M. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Jul 10;12:92. 56. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 May;56(5):379-84. 57. Janssen PL, Meyboom S, van Staveren WA, de Vegt F, Katan MB. Consumption of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) does not affect ex vivo platelet thromboxane production in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Nov;50(11):772-4. 58. Lumb AB. Effect of dried ginger on human platelet function. Thromb Haemost. 1994 Jan;71(1):110-1. 59. Srivastava KC. Effect of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1989 Mar;35(3):183-5. 60. Verma SK, Bordia A. Ginger, fat and fibrinolysis. Indian J Med Sci. 2001 Feb;55(2):83-6. 61. Young HY, Liao JC, Chang YS, Luo YL, Lu MC, Peng WH. Synergistic effect of ginger and nifedipine on human platelet aggregation: a study in hypertensive patients and normal volunteers. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(4):545-51. 62. Citronberg J, Bostick R, Ahearn T, Turgeon DK, Ruffin MT, Djuric Z, Sen A, Brenner DE, Zick SM. Effects of ginger supplementation on cell-cycle biomarkers in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa of patients at increased risk for colorectal cancer: results from a pilot, randomized, and controlled trial. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Apr;6(4):271-81. 63. Jiang Y, Turgeon DK, Wright BD, Sidahmed E, Ruffin MT, Brenner DE, Sen A, Zick SM. Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in colonic mucosa of humans at normal and increased risk for colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2013 Sep;22(5):455-60. 64. Khiewkhern S, Promthet S, Sukprasert A, Eunhpinitpong W, Bradshaw P. Effectiveness of aromatherapy with light thai massage for cellular immunity improvement in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(6):3903-7. 65. Zick SM, Turgeon DK, Vareed SK, Ruffin MT, Litzinger AJ, Wright BD, Alrawi S, Normolle DP, Djuric Z, Brenner DE. Phase II study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colon mucosa in people at normal risk for colorectal cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Nov;4(11):1929-37. 66. Shariatpanahi ZV, Mokhtari M, Taleban FA, Alavi F, Salehi Surmaghi MH, et al. Effect of enteral feeding with ginger extract in acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Crit Care. 2013 Apr;28(2):217.e1-6. 67. Shariatpanahi ZV, Taleban FA, Mokhtari M, Shahbazi S. Ginger extract reduces delayed gastric emptying and nosocomial pneumonia in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. J Crit Care. 2010 Dec;25(4):647-50. 68. Takahashi M, Li W, Koike K, Sadamoto K. Clinical effectiveness of KSS formula, a traditional folk remedy for alcohol hangover symptoms. J Nat Med. 2010 Oct;64(4):487-91. 69. Nord D, Belew J. Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children's comfort in a perianesthesia setting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2009 Oct;24(5):307-12. 70. Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, et al. Comparable efficacy of standardized Ayurveda formulation and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA): a randomized investigator-blind controlled study. Clin Rheumatol. 2012 Feb;31(2):259-69. 71. Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders. Med Hypotheses. 1989 May;29(1):25-8. 72. Kobayashi H, Mizuno N, Teramae H, Kutsuna H, Ueoku S, et al. Diet and Japanese herbal medicine for recalcitrant atopic dermatitis: efficacy and safety. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004;30(5-6):197-202. 73. Kobayashi H, Mizuno N, Teramae H, Kutsuna H, Ueoku S, et al. The effects of Hochu-ekki-to in patients with atopic dermatitis resistant to conventional treatment. Int J Tissue React. 2004;26(3-4):113-7. 74. Bub S, Brinckmann J, Cicconetti G, Valentine B. Efficacy of an herbal dietary supplement (Smooth Move) in the management of constipation in nursing home residents: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2006 Nov;7(9):556-61. 75. Goto F, Asama Y, Ogawa K. Sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko as an alternative treatment for chronic tonsillitis to avoid surgery. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010 Nov;16(4):216-8. 76. Jayashankar S, Panagoda GJ, Amaratunga EA, Perera K, Rajapakse PS. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal toothpaste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables. Ceylon Med J. 2011 Mar;56(1):5-9. 77. Sahib AS. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome using a selected herbal combination of Iraqi folk medicines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jul 30;148(3):1008-12. 78. Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Saravi M, Pouramir M, Jalali F, et al. Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J. 2008 Sep;29(9):1280-4. 79. Cady RK, Goldstein J, Nett R, Mitchell R, Beach ME, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sublingual feverfew and ginger (LipiGesic™ M) in the treatment of migraine. Headache. 2011 Jul-Aug;51(7):1078-86. 80. Cady RK, Schreiber CP, Beach ME, Hart CC. Gelstat Migraine (sublingually administered feverfew and ginger compound) for acute treatment of migraine when administered during the mild pain phase. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Sep;11(9):PI65-9. 81. Grøntved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol. 1988 Jan-Feb;105(1-2):45-9. 82. Holtmann S, Clarke AH, Scherer H, Höhn M. The anti-motion sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with placebo and dimenhydrinate. Acta Otolaryngol. 1989 Sep-Oct;108(3-4):168-74. 83. Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, Kim H, Hasler W, Owyang C. Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):G481-9. 84. Stewart JJ, Wood MJ, Wood CD, Mims ME. Effects of ginger on motion sickness susceptibility and gastric function. Pharmacology. 1991;42(2):111-20. 85. Wood CD, Manno JE, Wood MJ, Manno BR, Mims ME. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs. Clin Res Pr Drug Regul Aff. 1988;6(2):129-36. 86. Black CD, Herring MP, Hurley DJ, O'Connor PJ. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. J Pain. 2010 Sep;11(9):894-903. 87. Black CD, O'Connor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on quadriceps muscle pain during moderate-intensity cycling exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Dec;18(6):653-64. 88. Black CD, O'Connor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on muscle pain induced by eccentric exercise. Phytother Res. 2010 Nov;24(11):1620-6. 89. Karimi N, Roshan VD. Change in adiponectin and oxidative stress after modifiable lifestyle interventions in breast cancer cases. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(5):2845-50. 90. Feng XG, Hao WJ, Ding Z, Sui Q, Guo H, Fu J. Clinical study on tongyan spray for post-stroke dysphagia patients: a randomized controlled trial. Chin J Integr Med. 2012 May;18(5):345-9. 91. Mansour MS, Ni YM, Roberts AL, Kelleman M, Roychoudhury A, St-Onge MP. Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: a pilot study. Metabolism. 2012 Oct;61(10):1347-52. 92. Chen HC, Chen WC, Lin KH, Chen YH, Lo LC, et al. Simultaneous use of traditional Chinese medicine (si-ni-tang) to treat septic shock patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2011 Aug 24;12:199. 93. Katagiri F, Inoue S, Sato Y, Itoh H, Takeyama M. Comparison of the effects of Sho-hange-ka-bukuryo-to and Nichin-to on human plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels with continual stress exposure. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Oct;27(10):1679-82. 94. Mahluji S, Attari VE, Mobasseri M, Payahoo L, Ostadrahimi A, Golzari SE. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on plasma glucose level, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Sep;64(6):682-6. 95. Mahluji S, Ostadrahimi A, Mobasseri M, Ebrahimzade Attari V, Payahoo L. Anti-inflammatory effects of zingiber officinale in type 2 diabetic patients. Adv Pharm Bull. 2013;3(2):273-6. 96. Grøntved A, Hentzer E. Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root. A controlled clinical study. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1986;48(5):282-6. 97. Xiaoxiang Z. Jinger moxibustion for treatment of cervical vertigo--a report of 40 cases. J Tradit Chin Med. 2006 Mar;26(1):17-8. 98. Thomas M, Sheran J, Smith N, Fonseca S, Lee AJ. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. BMC Pulm Med. 2007 Mar 20;7:4. 99. Greenway FL, Liu Z, Martin CK, Kai-yuan W, Nofziger J, et al. Safety and efficacy of NT, an herbal supplement, in treating human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Dec;30(12):1737-41. 100. Roberts AT, Martin CK, Liu Z, Amen RJ, Woltering EA, et al. The safety and efficacy of a dietary herbal supplement and gallic acid for weight loss. J Med Food. 2007 Mar;10(1):184-8. 101. Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Pittler MH, Izzo AA. Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Apr;105(4):849-56. 102. Dante G, Pedrielli G, Annessi E, Facchinetti F. Herb remedies during pregnancy: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Feb;26(3):306-12. 103. Ding M, Leach M, Bradley H. The effectiveness and safety of ginger for pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic review. Women Birth. 2013 Mar;26(1):e26-30. 104. Esmaillzadeh A, Keshteli AH, Hajishafiee M, Feizi A, Feinle-Bisset C, Adibi P. Consumption of spicy foods and the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Oct 14;19(38):6465-71. 105. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 106. Futrell JM, Rietschel RL. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis. 1993 Nov;52(5):288-90. 107. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 108. Heitmann K, Nordeng H, Holst L. Safety of ginger use in pregnancy: results from a large population-based cohort study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Feb;69(2):269-77. 109. Prescott J, Stevenson RJ. Psychophysical responses to single and multiple presentations of the oral irritant zingerone: relationship to frequency of chili consumption. Physiol Behav. 1996 Aug;60(2):617-24. 110. Prescott J, Stevenson RJ. Desensitization to oral zingerone irritation: effects of stimulus parameters. Physiol Behav. 1996 Dec;60(6):1473-80. 111. Setty AR, Sigal LH. Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jun;34(6):773-84. 112. Chen XW, Serag ES, Sneed KB, Liang J, Chew H, Pan SY, Zhou SF. Clinical herbal interactions with conventional drugs: from molecules to maladies. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(31):4836-50. 113. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The complete guide to herbal medicines. Spring House, PA, USA: Springhouse Corporation; 2000. 114. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 115. Jiang X, Blair EY, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;46(11):1370-8. 116. Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, Ammit AJ, Roufogalis BD, Duke CC, Day RO, McLachlan AJ. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;59(4):425-32. 117. Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, Ingaszewski A, Kerr C. Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Sep;27(9):1237-47. 118. Tsai HH, Lin HW, Simon Pickard A, Tsai HY, Mahady GB. Evaluation of documented drug interactions and contraindications associated with herbs and dietary supplements: a systematic literature review. Int J Clin Pract. 2012 Nov;66(11):1056-78. 119. Ulbricht C, Chao W, Costa D, Rusie-Seamon E, Weissner W, Woods J. Clinical evidence of herb-drug interactions: a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration. Curr Drug Metab. 2008 Dec;9(10):1063-120. 120. Vaes LP, Chyka PA. Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother. 2000 Dec;34(12):1478-82. 121. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007. 122. Afendi FM, Okada T, Yamazaki M, Hirai-Morita A, Nakamura Y, Nakamura K, Ikeda S, Takahashi H, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Darusman LK, Saito K, Kanaya S. KNApSAcK family databases: integrated metabolite-plant species databases for multifaceted plant research. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012 Feb;53(2):e1.