Ginger

Updated | 2019-04-23


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Ginger


Overview

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale


Order: Zingiberales


Family: Zingiberaceae


The rhizomes (modified stems) of ginger are widely used in herbal medicine. The rhizomes are also used to season foods and add flavor to beverages. See the nutritional value of ginger.



Evidence

Strong:

-

Good:

  • Osteoarthritis/Joint Pain, ginger may also be effective in combination with glucosamine sulfate / methylsulfonylmethane / white willow bark extract / Boswellia serrata extract / turmeric root extract / cayenne / hyaluronic acid; diclofenac; Zingiber cassumunar in a gel; and cinnamon / mastic / sesame oil in an ointment [1-13]
    • An extract of ginger / Indian gooseberry / Tinospora cordifolia / Boswellia serrata was also as effective as glucosamine sulfate and celecoxib
    • A massage with ginger and orange essential oil was effective in the elderly
  • Nausea, ginger may be more effective than 8-MOP and vitamin B6 [14-33]
    • Nausea in Pregnant Women, including ginger syrup
    • Nausea in Chemotherapy Patients, including ginger with a high protein diet

Promising:

  • Indigestion [34-41]
  • Postoperative Nausea (PON), ginger with dexamethasone may also be effective [42-51]
  • Painful Menstruation, ginger in one case may be as effective as mefenamic acid and ibuprofen [52-55]

Conflicting (Unclear):

  • Anti-Platelet Aggregation in Cardiovascular Health, ginger with nifedipine may be more effective [56-61]
  • Colorectal Cancer; interestingly, a light Thai massage with ginger oil was effective [62-65]

Limited Evidence:

  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [66-67]
  • Alcohol Hangover Symptoms, a combination of ginger / Citrus tangerine / brown sugar [68]
  • Anesthesia Recovery in Children, lavender and ginger oil [69]
  • Arthritis, ginger with Tinospora cordifolia [70-71]
  • Atopic Dermatitis, fresh ginger with Astragalus root / licorice / jujube / ginseng / white Atractylodes rhizome / Chinese Angelica root [72-73]
  • Constipation, complex tea mixture containing mainly senna leaf [74]
  • Chronic Tonsillitis, ginger with gypsum / Bupleurum root / Pinellia tuber / Scutellaria root / Platycodon root / Jujube fruit / ginseng root / Glycyrrhiza root [75]
  • Gingivitis, ginger with Acacia chundra / Adhatoda vasica / Mimusops elengi / Piper nigrum / Pongamia pinnata / Quercus infectoria / Syzygium aromaticum / Terminalia chebula [76]
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), ginger with Mentha longifolia / Cyperus rotundus [77]
  • Lipid Lowering [78]
  • Migraines, ginger with feverfew [79-80]
  • Motion Sickness [81-85]
  • Muscle Pain from Exercise [86-88]
  • Oxidative Stress in Breast Cancer Patients [89]
  • Problem with Swallowing after Stroke, a spray with ginger / clematis root [90]
  • Satiety [91]
  • Septic Shock Patients, ginger with Glycyrrhiza uralensis / Aconitum carmichaelii [92]
  • Stress, a complex mixture containing Pinelliae tuber [93]
  • Type 2 Diabetes [94-95]
  • Vertigo, a ginger moxibustion [96-97]

No Evidence:

  • Asthma [98]
  • Weight Loss, ginger / rhubarb / Astragalus / red sage / turmeric combined with gallic acid [99-100]

No Clinical Research:

All other conditions.


Side Effects
Side effects may include:
  • Allergic Reactions
  • Bloating
  • Drowsiness
  • Gas
  • Gastrointestinal Complaints
  • Heartburn
  • Sedation
Precautions and Adverse Events:
  • Avoid or contact a licensed healthcare practitioner, if you have and have had gallstones, and are at a risk for hemorrhage.
  • Ginger and ginger spice can cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), especially in women.
  • Zingerone, a compound present in ginger is a slight irritant.
  • Avoid ginger at least 2 weeks before surgery.
  • Ginger may increase the risk of bleeding.
[101-111]


Pregnant or Nursing

Ginger appears to be safe for consumption in food amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Minor side effects included allergic reactions, heartburn, and sedation. According to a large study in Europe, the use of ginger during pregnancy did NOT increase the risk of congenital malformations, stillbirth/perinatal death, preterm birth, low birth weight, or low Apgar score (a measure of the physical status of a newborn). Ginger is also widely used during pregnancy, but information about its use during breast-feeding is limited, so consult a licensed healthcare practitioner if you have any questions or concerns. In addition, the maximum doses during pregnancy have NOT been established. [101-111]



Interactions

Major

-

Moderate

  • Anti-Coagulant
  • Anti-Platelet Drugs
  • Warfarin
[112-120]

Potential

  • Metronidazole
[112-120]


Dosage

Ginger is not a "drug", the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label, or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use. Overdose may cause cardiac arrhythmia and central nervous system (CNS) depression. On an empty stomach, 6 grams of ginger may lead to ulcer formation. [121]



Compounds
Ginger compounds


References

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Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 Aug;52(8):1408-17. 6. Drozdov VN, Kim VA, Tkachenko EV, Varvanina GG. Influence of a specific ginger combination on gastropathy conditions in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Jun;18(6):583-8. 7. Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J. 2013 Nov 25;12(1):154. 8. Niempoog S, Pawa KK, Amatyakul C. The efficacy of powdered ginger in osteoarthritis of the knee. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012 Jan;95 Suppl 1:S59-64. 9. Niempoog S, Siriarchavatana P, Kajsongkram T. The efficacy of Plygersic gel for use in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012 Oct;95 Suppl 10:S113-9. 10. Paramdeep G. Efficacy and tolerability of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in patients of osteoarthritis of knee. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Apr-Jun;57(2):177-83. 11. Wigler I, Grotto I, Caspi D, Yaron M. The effects of Zintona EC (a ginger extract) on symptomatic gonarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Nov;11(11):783-9. 12. Yip YB, Tam AC. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong. Complement Ther Med. 2008 Jun;16(3):131-8. 13. Zahmatkash M, Vafaeenasab MR. Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Jul 1;14(13):715-9. 14. Chittumma P, Kaewkiattikun K, Wiriyasiriwach B. Comparison of the effectiveness of ginger and vitamin B6 for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 Jan;90(1):15-20. 15. Ensiyeh J, Sakineh MA. Comparing ginger and vitamin B6 for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Midwifery. 2009 Dec;25(6):649-53. 16. Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1991 Jan 4;38(1):19-24. 17. Kalava A, Darji SJ, Kalstein A, Yarmush JM, SchianodiCola J, Weinberg J. Efficacy of ginger on intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective cesarean section patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013 Jul;169(2):184-8. 18. Keating A, Chez RA. Ginger syrup as an antiemetic in early pregnancy. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Sep-Oct;8(5):89-91. 19. Levine ME, Gillis MG, Koch SY, Voss AC, Stern RM, Koch KL. Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jun;14(5):545-51. 20. Manusirivithaya S, Sripramote M, Tangjitgamol S, Sheanakul C, Leelahakorn S, Thavaramara T, Tangcharoenpanich K. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004 Nov-Dec;14(6):1063-9. 21. Meyer K, Schwartz J, Crater D, Keyes B. Zingiber officinale (ginger) used to prevent 8-Mop associated nausea. Dermatol Nurs. 1995 Aug;7(4):242-4. 22. Mohammadbeigi R, Shahgeibi S, Soufizadeh N, Rezaiie M, Farhadifar F. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Aug 15;14(16):817-20. 23. Ozgoli G, Goli M, Simbar M. Effects of ginger capsules on pregnancy, nausea, and vomiting. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Mar;15(3):243-6. 24. Panahi Y, Saadat A, Sahebkar A, Hashemian F, Taghikhani M, Abolhasani E. 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