Tart Cherry

Updated | 2019-11-23


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Tart Cherry


Overview

Botanical Name: Prunus cerasus


Order: Rosales


Family: Rosaceae


Tart cherry is native to Europe and southwest Asia. Because of its sour-tasting fruit, tart cherry is also called sour cherry. Do not confuse tart cherry with black cherry. The juice of tart cherry is widely used in herbal medicine. Sometimes the variety, Montmorency tart cherry, is used in herbal medicine as well.



Evidence

Strong:

-

Good:

  • Exercise Recovery and Performance, a tart cherry powder may also be effective [1-11]

Promising:


Conflicting (Unclear):

-

Limited Evidence:

  • Cardiovascular Disease Markers (reduces) [18-20]
  • Cholesterol [21]
  • Gout [22-24]
  • Inflammation Markers (reduces) [25]
  • Oral Health; anti-bacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, a chewing gum containing tart cherry extract [26]
  • Osteoarthritis/Joint Pain, a cream may be more effective [27-28]
  • Oxidative Stress (reduces) [29-30]
  • Reduces Dietary Fat Intake/Satiety, a study with tart cherry pomace [31]
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms (URTS) in Runners [32]

No Evidence:

  • Cognitive Function [33]

No Clinical Research:

All other conditions.


Side Effects
Side effects may include:
  • Side effects have not been studied for tart cherry.
Precautions and Adverse Events:
  • Avoid or contact a licensed healthcare practitioner, if you have diabetes.
  • Cyanide poisoning from tart cherry is unlikely because of the low content of cyanogenic glycoside in the fruits.
  • Some people may be allergic to tart cherries.
[34-37]


Pregnant or Nursing

In food amounts, tart cherry is generally recognized as safe during pregnancy and breast-feeding. [34-37]



Interactions

Major

-

Moderate

-

Potential

-


Dosage

Tart cherry is not a "drug", the best doses have not been thoroughly established. Make sure to follow the specific product instructions and take as directed on the label or consult a licensed healthcare practitioner before use.



Compounds
Tart Cherry compounds


References

1. Bell PG, Stevenson E, Davison GW, Howatson G. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise. Nutrients. 2016 Jul 22;8(7). doi: 10.3390/nu8070441. PubMed PMID: 27455316; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4963917. 2. Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson E, Howatson G. Montmorency cherries reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to repeated days high-intensity stochastic cycling. Nutrients. 2014 Feb 21;6(2):829-43. doi: 10.3390/nu6020829. PubMed PMID: 24566440; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3942735. 3. Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson EJ, Howatson G. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Apr;40(4):414-23. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2014-0244. Epub 2014 Nov 26. PubMed PMID: 25794236. 4. Bowtell JL, Sumners DP, Dyer A, Fox P, Mileva KN. Montmorency cherry juice reduces muscle damage caused by intensive strength exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Aug;43(8):1544-51. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31820e5adc. PubMed PMID: 21233776. 5. Connolly DA, McHugh MP, Padilla-Zakour OI, Carlson L, Sayers SP. Efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in preventing the symptoms of muscle damage. Br J Sports Med. 2006 Aug;40(8):679-83; discussion 683. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.025429. Epub 2006 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 16790484; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2579450. 6. Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA, Brouner J, Jewell AP, van Someren KA, Shave RE, Howatson SA. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Dec;20(6):843-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01005.x. PubMed PMID: 19883392. 7. Jackman SR, Brook MS, Pulsford RM, Cockcroft EJ, Campbell MI, Rankin D, Atherton P, Smith K, Bowtell JL. Tart cherry concentrate does not enhance muscle protein synthesis response to exercise and protein in healthy older men. Exp Gerontol. 2018 Sep;110:202-208. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2018.06.007. Epub 2018 Jun 8. PubMed PMID: 29890270. 8. Keane KM, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM, Howatson G. Effects of montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus Cerasus) consumption on nitric oxide biomarkers and exercise performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Jul;28(7):1746-1756. doi: 10.1111/sms.13088. Epub 2018 Apr 16. PubMed PMID: 29566443. 9. McCormick R, Peeling P, Binnie M, Dawson B, Sim M. Effect of tart cherry juice on recovery and next day performance in well-trained Water Polo players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:41. doi: 10.1186/s12970-016-0151-x. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27895542; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5109721. 10. Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, Goodenough C, O'Connor A, Simbo S, Barringer N, Mertens-Talcott SU, Rasmussen C, Greenwood M, Riechman S, Crouse S, Kreider RB. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:41. doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0102-y. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26578852; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4647629. 11. Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, O'Connor A, Goodenough C, Simbo S, Mertens-Talcott SU, Rasmussen C, Greenwood M, Riechman S, Crouse S, Kreider RB. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on acute endurance exercise performance in aerobically trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:22. doi: 10.1186/s12970-016-0133-z. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27231439; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4880859. 12. Chai SC, Davis K, Wright RS, Kuczmarski MF, Zhang Z. Impact of tart cherry juice on systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 2018 Jun 20;9(6):3185-3194. doi: 10.1039/c8fo00468d. PubMed PMID: 29862410. 13. Keane KM, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM, Howatson G. Effects of montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus Cerasus) consumption on nitric oxide biomarkers and exercise performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Jul;28(7):1746-1756. doi: 10.1111/sms.13088. Epub 2018 Apr 16. PubMed PMID: 29566443. 14. Keane KM, George TW, Constantinou CL, Brown MA, Clifford T, Howatson G. Effects of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus Cerasus L.) consumption on vascular function in men with early hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun;103(6):1531-9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.123869. Epub 2016 May 4. PubMed PMID: 27146650. 15. Howatson G, Bell PG, Tallent J, Middleton B, McHugh MP, Ellis J. Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Dec;51(8):909-16. doi: 10.1007/s00394-011-0263-7. Epub 2011 Oct 30. PubMed PMID: 22038497. 16. Losso JN, Finley JW, Karki N, Liu AG, Prudente A, Tipton R, Yu Y, Greenway FL. Pilot Study of the Tart Cherry Juice for the Treatment of Insomnia and Investigation of Mechanisms. Am J Ther. 2018 Mar/Apr;25(2):e194-e201. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000584. PubMed PMID: 28901958; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5617749. 17. Pigeon WR, Carr M, Gorman C, Perlis ML. Effects of a tart cherry juice beverage on the sleep of older adults with insomnia: a pilot study. J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):579-83. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.0096. PubMed PMID: 20438325; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3133468. 18. Csiki Z, Papp-Bata A, Czompa A, Nagy A, Bak I, Lekli I, Javor A, Haines DD, Balla G, Tosaki A. Orally delivered sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) affects cardiovascular and hematological parameters in humans. Phytother Res. 2015 Mar;29(3):444-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5273. Epub 2015 Jan 9. PubMed PMID: 25640007. 19. Desai T, Bottoms L, Roberts M. The effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation and FATMAX exercise on fat oxidation rates and cardio-metabolic markers in healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2018 Dec;118(12):2523-2539. doi: 10.1007/s00421-018-3978-9. Epub 2018 Sep 1. PubMed PMID: 30173287. 20. Lynn A, Mathew S, Moore CT, Russell J, Robinson E, Soumpasi V, Barker ME. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2014 Jun;69(2):122-7. doi: 10.1007/s11130-014-0409-x. PubMed PMID: 24570273. 21. Chai SC, Davis K, Wright RS, Kuczmarski MF, Zhang Z. Impact of tart cherry juice on systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 2018 Jun 20;9(6):3185-3194. doi: 10.1039/c8fo00468d. PubMed PMID: 29862410. 22. Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA, Brouner J, Jewell AP, van Someren KA, Shave RE, Howatson SA. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Dec;20(6):843-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01005.x. PubMed PMID: 19883392. 23. McCormick R, Peeling P, Binnie M, Dawson B, Sim M. Effect of tart cherry juice on recovery and next day performance in well-trained Water Polo players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13:41. doi: 10.1186/s12970-016-0151-x. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27895542; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5109721. 24. Schumacher HR, Pullman-Mooar S, Gupta SR, Dinnella JE, Kim R, McHugh MP. Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Aug;21(8):1035-41. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.05.009. Epub 2013 May 31. PubMed PMID: 23727631. 25. Martin KR, Burrell L, Bopp J. Authentic tart cherry juice reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese subjects: a randomized, crossover pilot study. Food Funct. 2018 Oct 17;9(10):5290-5300. doi: 10.1039/c8fo01492b. PubMed PMID: 30255184. 26. Homoki J, Gyémánt G, Balogh P, Stündl L, Bíró-Molnár P, Paholcsek M, Váradi J, Ferenc F, Kelentey B, Nemes J, Remenyik J. Sour cherry extract inhibits human salivary α-amylase and growth of Streptococcus mutans (a pilot clinical study). Food Funct. 2018 Jul 17;9(7):4008-4016. doi: 10.1039/c8fo00064f. PubMed PMID: 29978173. 27. Mahmoud FF, Al-Awadhi AM, Haines DD. Amelioration of human osteoarthritis symptoms with topical 'biotherapeutics': a phase I human trial. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2015 Mar;20(2):267-76. doi: 10.1007/s12192-014-0553-0. Epub 2014 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 25427747; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4326390. 28. Schumacher HR, Pullman-Mooar S, Gupta SR, Dinnella JE, Kim R, McHugh MP. Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Aug;21(8):1035-41. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.05.009. Epub 2013 May 31. PubMed PMID: 23727631. 29. Bialasiewicz P, Prymont-Przyminska A, Zwolinska A, Sarniak A, Wlodarczyk A, Krol M, Markowski J, Rutkowski KP, Nowak D. Sour Cherries but Not Apples Added to the Regular Diet Decrease Resting and fMLP-Stimulated Chemiluminescence of Fasting Whole Blood in Healthy Subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 Jan;37(1):24-33. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2017.1354739. Epub 2017 Oct 6. PubMed PMID: 28985142. 30. Traustadóttir T, Davies SS, Stock AA, Su Y, Heward CB, Roberts LJ 2nd, Harman SM. Tart cherry juice decreases oxidative stress in healthy older men and women. J Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10):1896-900. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.111716. Epub 2009 Aug 19. PubMed PMID: 19692530; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3151016. 31. Bajerska J, Mildner-Szkudlarz S, Górnaś P, Seglina D. The effects of muffins enriched with sour cherry pomace on acceptability, glycemic response, satiety and energy intake: a randomized crossover trial. J Sci Food Agric. 2016 May;96(7):2486-93. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7369. Epub 2015 Sep 2. PubMed PMID: 26250501. 32. Dimitriou L, Hill JA, Jehnali A, Dunbar J, Brouner J, McHugh MP, Howatson G. Influence of a montmorency cherry juice blend on indices of exercise-induced stress and upper respiratory tract symptoms following marathon running--a pilot investigation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:22. doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0085-8. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 25983669; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4432790. 33. Keane KM, Haskell-Ramsay CF, Veasey RC, Howatson G. Montmorency Tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) modulate vascular function acutely, in the absence of improvement in cognitive performance. Br J Nutr. 2016 Dec;116(11):1935-1944. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516004177. Epub 2016 Dec 19. PubMed PMID: 27989253. 34. Ballmer-Weber BK, Scheurer S, Fritsche P, Enrique E, Cistero-Bahima A, Haase T, Wüthrich B. Component-resolved diagnosis with recombinant allergens in patients with cherry allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Jul;110(1):167-73. doi: 10.1067/mai.2002.125601. PubMed PMID: 12110837. 35. Derkenne C, Lamblin A, Jost D, Tourtier JP. Pseudohyperglycaemia in a comatose patient after picking cherries. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Oct 28;2016. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2016-218141. PubMed PMID: 27793876; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5093346. 36. DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA. The review of natural products: the most complete source of natural product information. 7th ed. St. Louis, MO, USA: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2012. 37. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, editors. PDR for herbal medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ, USA: Thomson Healthcare; 2007.

The "-" means there is no information.